[In the wish to render this Work of more practical value to persons desiring to emigrate, some official information is subjoined, under the following heads:--]


I. The number of Sales and Grants of Crown Lands, Clergy Reserves, Conditions, &c.
II. Information for Emigrants; Number of Emigrants arrived; with extracts from Papers issued by Government Emigration Agents, &c.
III. Abstract of the American Passengers' Act, of Session 1835.
IV. Transfer of Capital.
V. Canadian Currency.
VI. Canada Company.
VII. British American Land Company.



The following tables, abstracted from Parliamentary documents, exhibit --

1. The quantity of Crown lands sold in Upper and Lower Canada from 1828 to 1833, inclusive, with the average price per acre, &c.

2. Town and park lots sold in Upper Canada during the same period.

3. The quantity of Crown lands granted without purchase, and the conditions on which the grants were given, from 1824 to 1833, inclusive.

4. The amount of clergy reserves sold in each year since the sales commenced under the Act 7 and 8 Geo. IV., c.62.


5,044 9s. 9d.
Year. Acres
Ave. per
Money rec'd *1 Remitted to military *3 Quit-rent *4 Whole amount money.

1828 20,011 4s. 11d. £1,255 14s. 10d. -, -, - £39 12s. 6d.
1829 31,366 5s. 2-3/4d. £466 2s. 11d. -, -, - £307 11s. 0d. £7,469 17s. 7d.
1830 28,077 5s. 8-3/4d. £273 10s. 5d. -, -, - £322 3s. 0d. £7,461 13s. 5d.
1831 51,357 6s. 1-3/4d. £815 19s. 8d. -, -, - £484 14s. 7d. £12,442 8s. 0d.
1832 24,074 6s. 9-1/4d. £1,013 1s. 11d. £555 11s. 0d. £119 2s. 7d. £6,139 0s. 10d.
1833 42,570 4s. 2d. £1,975 10s. 11d. £1,936 9s. 3d. -, -, - £7,549 1s. 5d.
Totals 197,455 -, - -, -, - -, -, - -, -, - £46,106 11s. 0d.
*1 Average price per acre.
*2 Amount of purchase money received within the first year.
*3 Amount of purchase money remitted to military purchasers within the first year.
*4 Amount of quit-rent at 5 per cent on the purchase money received within the first year.
The conditions on which the land was sold were -- on sales on instalments, to be paid within three years; or on sales on quit-rent, at 5 per cent., capital redeemable at pleasure. N.B. Sales on quit-rent ceased in 1832.


Year. Number of acres sold. Average price per acre. Amount of purchase money received within the first year. Whole amount of purchase money.
    s.,d. £,s.,d. £,s.,d.
1829 3,893 15s., 1-3/4d. £760, 6s., 10d. £2,940, 17s., 3d.
1830 6,135 13s., 8-1/2d. £1,350, 16s., 6d. £4,209, 3s., 0d.
1831 4,357 11s., 3-1/2d. £1,626, 15s., 0d. £2,458, 1s., 8d.
1832 10,323 9s., 1-1/2d. £2,503,s., 5d. £4,711, 2s., 9d.
1833 26,376 8s., 9-1/4d. £5,660, 8s., 3d. £11,578, 19s., 3d.
Totals 51,074 - - £25,898, 3s., 11d.
Interest is now exacted on the instalments paid.
Three years is the number within which the whole amount of the purchase money is to be paid. The sales of town lots, water lots, and park lots, in Upper Canada, are not included in this table, on account of the disproportionate effect which the comparatively large sums paid for these small lots would have on the average price per acre. They are given, therefore, separately, in the following table:-


FROM 1828 TO 1833
Year. Number of sold. Average price per acre. Amount of purchase money received with-
in the first year.
Whole amount of purchase money.
  Acres £,s.,d. £,s.,d. £,s.,d.
1828 2 £126, 0s., 0d. £63, 0s., 0d. £252, 0s., 0d.
1829 - -, - £63, 0s., 0d. -, -, -
1830 19 £10, 10s., 6-1/2d. £55, 0s., 0d. £20, 0s., 0d.
1831 3 £8, 7s., 6-1/2d. £95*, 12s., 8d. £25, 2s., 8d.
1832 30 £15, 18s., 6d. £81, 18s., 9d. £327, 15s., 0d.
1833 114 £14, 13s., 9d. £634, 8s., 6d. £1,674, 9s., 0d.
Totals 168 -,-,- -,-,- £2,479, 6s., 8d.
There were no sales in 1829. The 63 pounds currency paid that year was paid as instalments on lots sold in the previous year.
The whole amount of the purchase money to be paid within three years.
*Note. -- It is so given in the Parliamentary Return, but probably the 9 should be 1.


The following exhibits the quantity of Crown Lands granted, and the conditions on which the grants were given, from 1823 to 1833.

  Number of acres granted to:
Year. militia claimants. discharged
soldiers and
officers. Other* Total Acres Granted
1824 51,810 - 4,100 34,859 90,769
1825 32,620 - 1,000 16,274 49,894
1826 3,525 5,500 - 48,224 57,249
1827 7,640 6,300 800 38,378 53,118
1828 7,300 - 4,504 9,036 20,840
1829 3,200 - - 5,282 8,482
1830 81,425 - 2,000 10,670 94,095
1831 9,400 8,273 3,408 9,900 30,981
1832 10,116 19,000 4,000 4,000 37,116
1833 5,200 22,500 1,200 - 28,900
Totals 212,236 61,573 21,012 176,623 471,444
* Others - not coming within the previous descriptions. Settler's Conditions. -- That he do clear twenty feet of road on his lot within the space of ninety days.
Military & Militia conditions. -- That he do, within the space of three years, clear and cultivate four acres of his lot, and build a dwelling-house thereon.


  Number of acres granted to:
Year. militia claimants. discharged
soldiers and
officers. Other* U.E.L.** Total Acres Granted
1824 11,800 5,800 5,500 134,500 30,200 187,800
1825 20,300 5,700 8,100 149,060 45,000 228,160
1826 16,600 3,100 4,700 19,390 24,800 68,590
1827 10,900 4,200 7,200 33,600 20,200 76,100
1828 10,800 900 3,000 4,304 30,800 49,804
1829 5,300 7,500 8,400 3,230 22,600 47,030
1830 6,400 12,500 12,600 9,336 27,400 68,236
1831 5,500 58,400 7,200 8,000 34,200 113,300
1832 19,300 97,800 7,600 6,100 62,600 193,400
1833 35,200 46,000 - 9,100 135,600 225,900
Totals 142,100 241,900 64,300 376,620 433,400 1,258,320
Condition. - Actual settlement.
** U.E. Loyalists means United English Loyalists -- individuals who fled from the United States on the breaking out of the American war of independence. The grants in the above column are mostly to the children of these individuals.


The conditions in force in 1824, the time from which the Returns take their commencement, were enacted by Orders in Council of 20th October, 1818, and 21st February, 1820, applied equally to all classes of grantees, and were as follows:--

"That locatees shall clear thoroughly and fence five acres for every 100 acres granted; and build a house 16 feet by 20 in the clear; and to clear one-half of the road, and chop down, without charring, one chain in depth across the lot next to road. These road duties to be considered as part of the five acres per 100. The whole to be completed within two years from date of the location, and upon proof of their fulfilment patents to issue.

"On the 14th of May, 1830, an additional stipulation was made in locations to discharged soldiers, which required an actual residence on their lots, in person, for five years before the issue of their patents.

"On the 14th of November, 1830, the then existing Orders in Council, respecting settlement duties, were cancelled, and it was ordered that in lieu thereof each locatee should clear half the road in front of his lot, and from 10 feet in the centre of the road cut the stumps so low that waggon wheels might pass over them. Upon proof of this, and that a settler had been resident on the lot two years, a patent might issue. Locatees, however, were at liberty, instead of placing settlers on their lands, to clear, in addition to half the road on each lot, a chain in depth across the front, and to sow it and the road with grass seed.

"Upon discharged soldiers and seamen alone, under this order, it became imperative to reside on and improve their lands three years before the issue of the patent.

"On the 24th of May, 1832, an Order in Council was made, abolishing, in all cases except that of discharged soldiers and seamen, the regulations previously existing; and which directed that, upon proof of an actual settler being established on a lot, a patent should issue without the condition of settlement duty."

The following extract is taken from "official information" circulated by Mr. Buchanan, and other Government emigration agents in Canada:--

"Emigrants, wishing to obtain fertile lands in the Canadas in a wild state by purchase from the Crown, may rely on every facility being afforded them by the public authorities. Extensive tracts are surveyed and offered for sale in Upper Canada monthly, and frequently every 10 or 14 days, by the Commissioner of Crown lands, at upset prices, varying according to situation from 10 shillings to 15 shillings per acre, excepting in the townships of Sunnidale and Nottawasaga, where the upset price of Crown lands is 5 shillings only. In Lower Canada, the Commissioner of Crown lands at Quebec puts up land for sale, at fixed periods, in various townships, at from 2 shillings 6 pence to 12 shillings 6 pence Halifax currency, per acre, payable by instalments. Wild lands may also be purchased from the Upper Canada Company on very easy terms, and those persons wanting improved farms will find little difficulty in obtaining such from private proprietors. On no account enter into any final engagement for your lands or farms without personal examination, and be certain of the following qualifications:-- "1. A healthy situation. "2. Good land. "3. A pure spring, or running stream of water. "4. In the neighbourhood of a good, moral, and religious state of society, and schools for the education of your children. "5. As near good roads and water transport as possible, saw and grist mills. "6. A good title."


Clergy Reserves sold in each year since the sales commenced under the Act 7 and 8, Geo. IV. c.62
Year. Acres sold. Average price per acre. Money rec'd* Whole amount of money.**
1829 1,100 4s. 6d. £10 0s. 0d. £230 0s. 0d.+
1830 9,956 4s. 9d. £543 17s. 0d. £1,610 3s. 0d.+
1831 11,332 7s. 2-3/4d. £541 7s. 6d. £2,665 9s. 3d.+
1832 6,873 5s. 8-1/2d. £533 2s. 2d. £1,278 11s. 8d.
1833 37,278 8s. 2-1/4d. £3,454 11s. 6d. £12,791 17s. 5d.
Totals 66,539 - - £18,576 1s. 4d.
* Amount of purchase-money received within the first year.
** Whole amount of the purchase-money.
The number of years within which the whole amount of the purchase-money is to be paid is three.
+ On sales on quit rent, at 5 per cent., the capital redeemable at pleasure.
N.B. Sales on quit-rent ceased in 1832.


Clergy Reserves sold in each year since the sales commenced under the Act 7 and 8, Geo. IV. c.62
Year. Acres sold. Average price per acre. Money rec'd* Whole amount of money.**
1829 18,014 14s. 8-1/4d. £2,464 14s. 0d. £13,229 0s. 0d.
1830 34,705 13s. 6d. £6,153 5s. 9d. £23,452 4s. 0d.
1831 28,563 12s. 1-3/4d. £8,010 2s. 11d. £17,362 12s. 1d.
1832 48,484 13s. 3-3/4d. £10,239 9s. 7d. £32,287 19s. 0d.
1833 62,282 14s. 4-1/2d. £14,080 16s. 8d. £44,747 19s. 9d.
Totals 192,049 - - £131,079 14s. 10d.
* Amount of purchase-money received within the first year.
** Whole amount of the purchase-money.

The whole amount of the purchase-money to be paid in nine years. In addition to the purchase-money paid, interest has also been paid with each instalment, a statement of which is as follows:--

Interest received in 1829: £1, 7 s., 3 d. currency.
Interest received in 1830: £62, 16 s., 1 d. currency.
Interest received in 1831: £259, 14 s., 9 d. currency.
Interest received in 1832: £473, 17 s., 2 d. currency.
Interest received in 1833: £854, 4 s., 3 d. currency.



In the year 1832 a little pamphlet of advice to emigrants was issued by his Majesty's Commissioners for Emigration*, which contained some useful information in a small compass. The Commission no longer exists. In lieu of it, J. Denham Pinnock, Esq., has been appointed by Government His Majesty's agent for the furtherance of emigration from England to the British Colonies. Letters on the subject of emigration should be addressed to this gentleman at the Colonial Office, under cover to the Colonial Secretary of State. One chief object of his appointment is to afford facilities and information to parish authorities and landed proprietors desirous of furthering the emigration of labourers and others from their respective districts, especially with reference to the emigration clause of the Poor Laws Amendment Act. The following Government emigration agents have also been appointed at the respective ports named:--

[* "Information published by His Majesty's Commissioners for Emigration, respecting the British Colonies in North America." London, C. Knight, 1832. Price twopence.]

Liverpool ...Lieut. Low, R.N.
Bristol ... Lieut. Henry, R.N.
Leith ... Lieut. Forrest, R.N.
Greenock ... Lieut. Hemmans, R.N.
Dublin ... Lieut. Hodder, R.N.
Cork ... Lieut. Friend, R.N.
Limerick ... Lieut. Lynch, R.N.
Belfast ... Lieut. Millar, R.N.
Sligo ... Lieut. Shuttleworth, R.N.

And at Quebec, A. C. Buchanan, Esq., the chief Government emigration agent, will afford every information to all emigrants who seek his advice.

The following is an extract from the pamphlet published in 1832:--

"Passages to Quebec or New Brunswick may either be engaged inclusive of provisions, or exclusive of provisions, in which case the ship-owner finds nothing but water, fuel, and bed places, without bedding. Children under 14 years of age are charged one-half, and under 7 years of age one-third of the full price, and for children under 12 months of age no charge is made. Upon these conditions the price of passage from London, or from places on the east coast of Great Britain, has generally been 6 pounds with provisions, or 3 pounds without. From Liverpool, Greenock, and the principal ports of Ireland, as the chances of delay are fewer, the charge is somewhat lower; this year [1832] it will probably be from 2 pounds to 2 pounds, 10 shillings without provisions, or from 4 pounds to 5 pounds, including provisions. It is possible that in March and April passages may be obtained from Dublin for 1 pound, 15 shillings or even 1 pound, 10 shillings; but the prices always grow higher as the season advances. In ships sailing from Scotland or Ireland, it has mostly been the custom for passengers to find their own provisions; but this practice has not been so general in London, and some shipowners, sensible of the dangerous mistakes which may be made in this matter through ignorance, are very averse to receive passengers who will not agree to be victualled by the ship. Those who do resolve to supply their own provisions, should at least be careful not to lay in an insufficient stock; fifty days is the shortest period for which it is safe to provide, and from London the passage is sometimes prolonged to seventy-five days. The best months for leaving England are certainly March and April; the later emigrants do not find employment so abundant, and have less time in the colony before the commencement of winter."

From a printed paper, issued by Mr. Buchanan at Quebec, the following statements are taken: (the paper is dated July, 1835).

"There is nothing of more importance to emigrants, on arrival at Quebec, than correct information on the leading points connected with their future pursuits. Many have suffered much by a want of caution, and by listening to the opinions of interested, designing characters, who frequently offer their advice unsolicited, and who are met generally about wharfs and landing-places frequented by strangers: to guard emigrants from falling into such errors, they should, immediately on arrival at Quebec, proceed to the office of the chief agent for emigrants, Sault-au-Matelot Street, Lower Town, where every information requisite for their future guidance in either getting settlements on lands, or obtaining employment in Upper or Lower Canada, will be obtained gratis. On your route from Quebec to your destination you will find many plans and schemes offered to your consideration, but turn away from them unless you are well satisfied of the purity of the statements: on all occasions when you stand in need of advice, apply only to the Government agents, who will give every information required, gratis.

"Emigrants are informed that they may remain on board ship 48 hours after arrival, nor can they be deprived of any of their usual accommodations for cooking or berthing during that period, and the master of the ship is bound to disembark the emigrants and their baggage free of expense, at the usual landing places, and at seasonable hours. They should avoid drinking the water of the river St. Lawrence, which has a strong tendency to produce bowel complaints in strangers.

"Should you require to change your English money, go to some respectable merchant or dealer, or the banks: the currency in the Canadas is at the rate of 5 shillings the dollar, and is called Halifax currency; at present the gold sovereign is worth, in Quebec and Montreal, about 1 pound, 4 shillings, 1 pence currency. In New York 8 shillings is calculated for the dollar, hence many are deceived when hearing of the rates of labour, &c. -- 5 shillings in Canada is equal to 8 shillings in New York; thus 8 shillings New York currency is equivalent to 5 shillings Halifax currency.

"Emigrants who wish to settle in Lower Canada or to obtain employment, are informed that many desirable situations are to be met with. Wild lands may be obtained by purchase from the Commissioner of Crown Lands in various townships in the province, and the British American Land Company are making extensive preparations for selling lands and farms in the Eastern Townships to emigrants.

"Farm labourers are much wanted in all the districts of Upper Canada, and, if industrious, they may be sure of obtaining very high wages; mechanics of almost every description, and good servants, male and female, are much in request.

"Emigrants proceeding to Upper Canada, either by the Ottawa or St. Lawrence route, are advised to supply themselves with provisions at Montreal, such as bread, tea, sugar, and butter, which they will purchase cheaper and of better quality, until they reach Kingston, than along the route. They are also particularly cautioned against the use of ardent spirits or drinking cold river water, or lying on the banks of the river exposed to the night dews; they should proceed at once from the steam-boat at Montreal to the entrance of the Canal or Lachine, from whence the Durham and steam-boats start for Prescott and Bytown daily. The total expense for the transport of an adult emigrant from Quebec to Toronto and the head of Lake Ontario, by steam and Durham-boats, will not exceed 1 pound, 4 shillings currency, or 1 pound, 1 shilling sterling. Kingston, Belleville, up the Bay of Quinte, Cobourgh, and Port Hope, in the Newcastle district, Hamilton and Niagara at the head of Lake Ontario, will be convenient stopping-places for families intending to purchase lands in Upper Canada.

"There is considerable competition among the Forwarding Companies at Montreal; emigrants therefore had better exercise a little caution before agreeing for their transport to Prescott or Kingston, and they should avoid those persons that crowd on board the steam-boats on arrival at Montreal, offering their services to get passages, &c. Caution is also necessary at Prescott or Kingston, in selecting regular conveyances up Lake Ontario. I would particularly advise emigrants destined for Upper Canada, not to incur the expense of lodging or delay at Montreal, but to proceed on arrival of the steam-boat to the barges for Bytown or Prescott.

"Labourers or mechanics dependent on immediate employment, are requested to proceed immediately on arrival into the country. The chief agent will consider such persons as may loiter about the ports of landing beyond four days after their arrival, to have no further claims on the protection of his Majesty's agents for assistance or employment, unless they have been detained by sickness or some other satisfactory cause."


Comparative Statement of the number of Emigrants arrived at Quebec from 1829 to 1834 inclusive:--
  1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834
England and Wales 3,565 6,799 10,343 17,481 5,198 6,799
Ireland 9,614 18,300 34,133 28,204 12,013 19,206
Scotland 2,643 2,450 5,354 5,500 4,196 4,591
Hamburg & Gibraltar.       15    
Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, West Indies, &c. 123 451 424 546 345 339
Totals 15,945 28,000 50,254 51,746 21,752 30,935

The total number of emigrants arrived at Quebec, from 1829 to 1834, is 198,632. It will be remarked, that the number rose high in 1831 and 1832, and fell very low in 1833.


Distribution of the 30,935 Emigrants who arrived at Quebec during 1834:-

City and District of Quebec: 1,500
District of Three Rivers: 350
District of St. Francis and Eastern Townships: 640
City and District of Montreal: 1,200
Ottawa District: 400
Total to Lower Canada: 4,090


Ottawa, Bathurst, Midland and Eastern Districts, as far as Kingston, included: 1,000
District of Newcastle, and Townships in the vicinity of the Bay of Quinte: 2,650
Toronto and the Home District, including Settlements around Lake Simco: 8,000
Hamilton, Guelph, and Huron Tracts, and situations adjacent: 2,660
Niagara Frontier and District, including the line of the Welland Canal, and round the head of Lake Ontario, to Hamilton: 3,300
Settlements bordering on Lake Erie, including the London District, Adelaide Settlement, and on to Lake St. Clair: 4,600
Total to Upper Canada: 22,210

Died of cholera in Upper and Lower Canada: 800
Returned to United Kingdom: 350
Went to the United States: 3,485
[Total:] 4,635


Of the number of 30,935 Emigrants who arrived at Quebec in 1834, there were of:--

Voluntary emigrants: 29,041
Assisted by parochial aid: 1,892
Number of males: 13,565
Number of females: 9,683
Number of children under fourteen years of age: 7,681

Emigrants who prefer going into Canada by way of New York will receive advice and direction by applying to the British Consul at New York (James Buchanan, Esq.) Formerly this gentleman could procure for emigrants who were positively determined to settle in the Canadas, permission to land their baggage and effects free of custom-house duty; but in a letter dated 16th March, 1835, he says:--

"In consequence of a change in the truly liberal course heretofore adopted at this port, in permitting, without unpacking or payment of duty, of the personal baggage, household, and farming utensils of emigrants landing here to pass in transit through this state to his Majesty's provinces, upon evidence being furnished of the fact, and that such packages alone contained articles of the foregoing description, I deem it my duty to make known that all articles arriving at this port accompanying emigrants in transit to Canada, will be subject to the same inspection as if to remain in the United States, and pay the duties to which the same are subjected. I think it proper to mention that all articles suited to new settlers are to be had in Canada on better terms than they can be brought out -- and such as are adapted to the country."

The difference between proceeding to Upper Canada by way of Quebec and New York, consists chiefly in the circumstance that the port of New York is open all the year round, while the navigation of the St. Lawrence up to Quebec and Montreal is tedious, and the river is only open between seven and eight months of the year. The latter is, however, the cheapest route. But to those who can afford it, New York is the most comfortable as well as the most expeditious way of proceeding to Upper Canada.

The route, as given in a printed paper, distributed by the British consul at New York, is as follows:--

"Route from New York and Albany by the Erie Canal to all parts of Upper Canada, west of Kingston, by the way of Oswego and Buffalo:--

New York to Albany, 160 miles by steam-boat.
Albany to Utica, 110 do. by canal or stage.
Utica to Syracuse, 55 do. by canal or stage.
Syracuse to Oswego, 40 do. by canal or stage.
Syracuse to Rochester, 99 do. by canal or stage.
Rochester to Buffalo, 93 do. by canal or stage.

Total expense from Albany to Buffalo, by canal, exclusive of victuals for an adult steerage passenger -- time going about 7 or 8 days -- 3 dollars 63 cents; ditto by packet-boats, and found, 12-1/4 dollars, 6 days going.

"Ditto do. by stage, in 3-1/2 and 4 days -- 13 to 15 dollars.

"Ditto do. from Albany to Oswego by canal, 5 days going, 2-1/2 dollars.

"Ditto do. by stage, 2 days -- 6-1/2 to 7 dollars.

"No extra charge for a moderate quantity of baggage.

"Route from New York to Montreal, Quebec, and all parts of Lower Canada:--

"New York to Albany, 160 miles by steam-boat, 1 to 3 dollars, exclusive of food.

"Albany to Whitehall, by canal, 73 miles, 1 dollar; stage 3 dollars.

"Whitehall to St. John's, by steam-boat, board included, cabin 5 dollars; deck passage 2 dollars without board.

"St. John's to Laprairie, 16 miles per stage, 5 shillings to 7 shillings 6 pence.

"Laprairie to Montreal, per ferry steam-boat, 8 miles. 6 pence.

"Montreal to Quebec, by steam-boat, 180 miles, cabin, found, 1 pound, 5 shillings; deck passage, not found, 7 shillings 6 pence.

"Those proceeding to the eastern townships of Lower Canada, in the vicinity of Sherbrooke, Stanstead, &c., &c., will proceed to St. John's, from whence good roads lead to all the settled townships eastward. If they are going to the Ottawa River, they will proceed from Montreal and Lachine, from whence stages, steamboats, and batteaux go daily to Grenville, Hull, and Bytown, as also to Chateauguay, Glengary, Cornwall, Prescott, and all parts below Kingston.

"Emigrants can avail themselves of the advice and assistance of the following gentlemen:-- at Montreal, Carlisle Buchanan, Esq.; Prescott, John Patton, Esq."


Number of Emigrants who arrived at New York from the United Kingdom for six years, from 1829 to 1834:--
Year. England. Ireland. Scotland. Total.
1829 8,110 2,443 948 11,501
1830 16,350 3,497 1,584 21,433
1831 13,808 6,721 2,078 22,607
1832 18,947 6,050 3,286 28,283
1833 - - - 16,000
1834* - - - 26,540
Total - - - 126,464
* The returns for 1834 are made up to the 20th November of that year.



The 9th Geo. IV., c. 21, commonly called the "American Passengers' Act," was repealed during the Session of 1835, by an Act then passed, the 5 and 6 Will. IV., c. 53. The intention of the new Act is, of course, to secure, as effectually as possible, and more effectually than the previous Act did, the health and comfort of emigrants on board of passenger ships. By a clause of the Act, copies or abstracts are to be kept on board ships for the perusal of passengers, who may thus have an opportunity of judging whether the law has been complied with; but the discovery of any infractions of the Statute may be made at a time when, in the particular instance, it may be too late to remedy it, so far as the comfort and even the health of the passengers are concerned. It is to be hoped, therefore, that the humane intentions of the legislature will not be frustrated by any negligence on the part of those (especially of the officers of customs) whose business it is to see that the regulations of the Act have been complied with before each emigrant ship leaves port.

No passenger ship is to sail with more than three persons on board for every five tons of registered burthen. Nor, whatever may be the tonnage, is there to be a greater number of passengers on board than after the rate of one person for every ten superficial feet of the lower deck or platform unoccupied by goods or stores, not being the personal luggage of the passengers.

Ships with more than one deck to have five feet and a half; at the least, between decks; and where a ship has only one deck, a platform is to be laid beneath the deck in such a manner as to afford a space of the height of at least five feet and a half, and no such ship to have more than two tiers of berths. Ships having two tiers of berths to have an interval of at least six inches between the deck or platform, and the floor of the lower tier throughout the whole extent.

Passenger ships are to be provisioned in the following proportion:--pure water, to the amount of five gallons, to every week of the computed voyage, for each passenger--the water to be carried in tanks or sweet casks; seven pounds' weight of bread, biscuit, oatmeal, or bread stuffs, to every week for each passenger; potatoes may be included to one-third of the extent of supply, but seven pounds' weight of potatoes are to be reckoned equal to one pound of bread or bread stuffs. The voyage to North America is to be computed at ten weeks, by which each passenger will be secured fifty gallons of water, and seventy pounds weight of bread or bread stuffs for the voyage.

Where there are 100 passengers, a medical practitioner is to be carried; if under 100, medicines of sufficient amount and kind are to be taken out as part of the necessary supplies.

Passenger ships are not to be allowed to carry out ardent spirits as merchandise beyond one-tenth of the quantity as would, but for this restriction, be allowed by the officers of the customs upon the victualling bill of such ship for the outward voyage only, according to the number of passengers.

[An important restriction, which ought to be enforced to the letter of the law. The strong temptation which the tedium of a voyage presents to numbers pinned up in a small space to resort to drinking, has frequently made sad havoc of the money, comfort, and health of emigrants, when, especially, the ship steward has contrived to lay in a good stock of strong waters.]

In the enumeration of passengers, two children above seven, but under fourteen, or three under seven years of age, are to be reckoned as one passenger. Infants under 12 months are not to be included in the enumeration.

Passengers are entitled to be maintained on board for 48 hours after the ship has arrived at her destination. [Emigrants whose means are limited may thus avoid much inconvenience and expense, by planning and executing with promptitude the route which they mean to take, instead of landing, and loitering in the expensive houses of entertainment of a sea-port.]

Masters of ships are to enter into bonds of 1,000 pounds for the due performance of the provisions of the Act. The penalty on any infraction of the law is to be not less than 5 pounds, nor more than 20 pounds for each offence.

[The government emigration agents at the various ports, or the officers of customs, will doubtless give every facility to passengers who seek their advice relative to any violation of the provisions of the Act, and point out the proper course to be taken.]

If there be any doubt that a ship about to sail is not sea-worthy, the collector and comptroller of the customs may cause the vessel to be surveyed. Passengers detained beyond the time contracted for to sail, are to be maintained at the expense of the master of the ship; or, if they have contracted to victual themselves, they are to be paid 1 shilling each for each day of detention not caused by stress of weather or other unavoidable cause.



It is, of course, of the greatest importance to emigrants that whatever capital they may possess, over the necessary expenses of the voyage, &c., should be remitted to Canada in the safest and most profitable manner. Both the British American Land Company and the Canada Company afford facilities to emigrants, by receiving deposits and granting letters of credit on their agents in Canada, by which the emigrants obtain the benefit of the current premium of exchange. It is unsafe and injudicious to carry out a larger amount of specie than what will defray the necessary expenses of the voyage, because a double risk is incurred,--the danger of losing, and the temptation of squandering. The emigrant, therefore, who does not choose to remit his money through either of the before-mentioned companies, should procure a letter of credit from some respectable bank in the United Kingdom on the Montreal bank.



In all the British North American colonies accounts are kept and prices are quoted in pounds, shillings, and pence, as in England. The accounts are contra-distinguished by calling the former currency, or Halifax currency, and the latter sterling or British sterling.

The one pound Halifax currency, or currency, as it is more commonly called, consists of four Spanish dollars. The dollar is divided into five parts -- called in Spanish pistoreens --each of which is termed a shilling. Each of these shillings or pistoreens is again subdivided into twelve parts, called pence, but improperly, for there is no coin answering to any such subdivision. To meet the want a great variety of copper coins are used, comprising the old English halfpenny, the halfpenny of later coinage, the penny, the farthing, the American cent.; all and each pass as the twenty-fourth part of the pistoreen or colonial shilling. Pence in fact are not known, though almost anything of the copper kind will be taken as the twenty-fourth part of the pistoreen.*

[* The Americans also have their 1 shilling, which is the eighth part of a dollar, or 12-1/2 cents. It is no uncommon thing to hear the emigrant boast that he can get 10 shillings per day in New York. He knows not that a dollar, which is equal to eight of these shillings, is in England equivalent but to 4 shillings 2 pence, and that the American shilling is, therefore, when compared with the English shilling in value, only 6-1/4 pence, and consequently, that 10 shillings a day is, in fact, but ten 6-1/4 pence or 5 shillings 2-1/2 pence. This rate of payment it may be said is still great; so it is, but it is not often obtained by the labourer; when it is, it is for excessive labour, under a burning sun in sea-port towns, during the busy shipping season.]

At a time when the Spanish dollar, the piece of eight, as it was then called, was both finer and heavier than the coin now in circulation, its value at the mint price of silver** was found to be 4 shilling 6 pence sterling. Accordingly, the pound currency was fixed at 18 shillings sterling, and 90 pounds sterling was equal to 100 pounds currency, the rules of conversion being, add one-ninth to sterling to obtain currency, and deduct one tenth from currency to find the sterling. This was called the par of exchange, and was so then. So long as it continued correct, fluctuations were from a trifle above, to a trifle below par, and this fluctuation was a real premium or discount, governed by the cost of the transportation of bullion from the one to the other side of the Atlantic, an expense which now does not exceed, and rarely equals, 2 per cent. 4 shilling 6 pence has long ceased to be the value of the dollar. Both the weight and purity of the coin have been reduced, until its value in the London market*** is not more than 4 shillings 2 pence, the pound currency being consequently reduced to 16 shillings 8 pence sterling and 100 pounds sterling become equivalent to 120 pounds currency, or 480 dollars, the common average rate now given for the 100 pounds sterling bill of exchange in England.

[** The mint price then coincided more nearly with the market price than at present.]

[*** It is necessary to use the market price, as the difference between the mint and the market price is 4 per cent., and as the Spanish dollar possesses no conventional value, it is only worth what it will bring as an article of traffic.]

The Government, however, still sanction, nay, will not change, the old language, so that the difference is made up by adding what is commonly termed a premium. The difference between the real par, 4 shillings 2 pence, and the nominal par, 4 shillings 6 pence, is 4 pence or eight per cent. Thus the fluctuations, instead of being from 1 to 2 per cent. below, to 1 or 2 per cent. above the real par, are from 1 to 2 per cent. below, to 1 to 2 per cent. above 8 per cent. premium as it is called on the nominal par, or from 6 or 7 to 9 or 10 per cent. premium on the par. This leads to gross deception, and the emigrant in consequence is not unfrequently outrageously cheated by parties accounting to him for money obtained by sale of bills, minus this or some portion of this nominal premium. Nothing is more common than to hear the new comer boast that he has sold his bill on England for 8 per cent. premium, while in fact he has not received par value. As by the above changes 100 pounds sterling is shewn to be equal to 120 currency, or 480 dollars, the rule of conversion, in the absence of a law, where no understanding to the contrary existed, should be, add one-fifth to sterling money, and currency is obtained, or deduct one-sixth from currency, and sterling is found. An examination of the exchanges for ten years has proved this to be correct.



The Canada Company was incorporated by royal charter and Act of Parliament in 1826. The following are extracts from the prospectus of the Company:--

"The Canada Company have lands for sale in almost every part of the province of Upper Canada, on terms which cannot fail to be highly advantageous to the emigrant, as from the Company requiring only one-fifth of the purchase-money to be paid in cash, and allowing the remainder to be divided into five annual payments, bearing interest, the settler, if industrious, is enabled to pay the balance from the produce of the land.

"The lands of the Canada Company are of three descriptions, viz.--

Scattered reserves: Blocks or tracts of land, of from 1,000 to 40,000 acres each; The Huron tract, containing upwards of 1,000,000 acres.

"Scattered reserves. The scattered crown reserves are lots of land of from 100 to 200 acres each, distributed through nearly every township in the province, and partaking of the soil, climate, &c., of each particular township. These lands are especially desirable for persons who may have friends settled in their neighbourhood, and can be obtained at prices varying from 8 shillings 9 pence to 25 shillings currency an acre.

"Blocks of Land. The blocks or tracts lie entirely in that part of the province situated to the westward of the head of Lake Ontario, and contain lands which, for soil, climate, and powers of production, are equal, and perhaps superior, to any on the continent of America. These are worthy the attention of communities of emigrants, who from country, relationship, religion, or any other bond, wish to settle together.

"The largest block of this kind in the Company's possession is the township of Guelph, containing upwards of 40,000 acres, of which the greater part has been already sold, and, in the space of a few years only, a town has been established, containing churches, schools, stores, taverns, and mills, and where there are mechanics of every kind, and a society of a highly respectable description.

"The Huron Territory. This is a tract of the finest land in America, through which the Canada Company have cut two roads of upwards of 100 miles in extent, of the best description of which a new country admits.

The population there is rapidly on the increase.

"The town of Goderich, at the mouth of the river Maitland, on Lake Huron, is very flourishing, and contains several excellent stores, or merchants' shops, in which any article usually required by a settler is to be obtained on reasonable terms. There is a good school established, which is well attended; a Church of England and a Presbyterian clergyman are appointed there; and as the churches in Upper Canada are now principally supported by the voluntary subscriptions of their respective congregations, an inference may be drawn of the respectable character of the inhabitants of this settlement and the neighbourhood. The town and township of Goderich contain about 1,000 inhabitants; and since the steam-boat, built by the Company for the accommodation of their settlers, has commenced running between Goderich and Sandwich, a great increase has taken place in the trade and prosperity of the settlement. In this tract there are four good saw-mills, three grist-mills, and in the neighbourhood of each will be found stores well supplied. And as the tract contains a million acres, the greater portion of which is open for sale, an emigrant or body of emigrants, however large, can have no difficulty in selecting eligible situations, according to their circumstances, however various they may be. The price of these lands is from 11 shillings 3 pence to 15 shillings provincial currency, or about from 11 shillings to 13 shillings 6 pence sterling per acre."

Emigrants wishing to communicate with the Company should address the secretary, John Perry Esq., St. Helen's-place, Bishopsgate-street, London, or the Company's agents at outports.



The British American Land Company state, in their prospectus, that they have purchased from the British Government "nearly 1,000,000 of acres in the counties of Shefford, Stanstead, and Sherbrooke," in what are termed "the Eastern Townships of Lower Canada." These townships comprise "a tract of country, lying inland, on the south side of the St. Lawrence, between 45 degrees and 46-1/2 degrees north latitude, and 71 degrees and 73 degrees west longitude. This tract, containing between five and six millions of acres, is divided into eight counties, and these again are subdivided into about one hundred townships. These townships enjoy an important advantage in their geographical position. On the one side, they are of easy access from Montreal, Quebec, and Three Rivers, the shipping ports and great markets of the Canadas; on the other, from New York up the Hudson River and through Lake Champlain, as well as from Boston and other parts on the seaboard of the Atlantic. By their compact and contiguous position, facility of intercourse and mutual support are ensured throughout the whole, as well as a general participation in all local improvements."

The terms on which the Company propose to dispose of these lands "vary according to the situation, quality, and advantages which the different lots may possess; but in the first instance they will generally range from 4 shillings to 10 shillings currency per acre, and in all cases a deposit of part of the purchase-money will be required, viz.:-- On the higher priced lots one-fifth; on the lower priced lots one-fourth.

"The terms of payment for the balance will be six annual instalments, bearing the legal interest of the province from the date of sale; but should purchasers prefer anticipating the payments, they will have the option at any time of doing so.

"The price of a building lot at Port St. Francis, for the present season (1835), is 12 pounds 10 shillings, payable 5 pounds cash down, and the balance in one year, with interest.

"Deposits of purchase-money may be made with the Company in London for lands to be selected by emigrants on their arrival in the country.

"By the agreement between his Majesty's Government and the Company, upwards of 50,000 pounds of the purchase-money paid by the latter are to be expended by them in public works and improvements, such as high roads, bridges, canals, school-houses, market-houses, churches, and parsonage-houses. This is an extremely important arrangement, and must prove highly beneficial to settlers, as it assures to them the improvement and advancement of this district. The formation of roads and other easy communications are the great wants of a new country; and the application of capital on works of this nature, which are beyond the means of private individuals, is the best mode by which the successful settlement may be promoted and accomplished.

"The expenditure of the large sum above mentioned, will offer at the same time an opportunity of employment to honest and industrious labourers, immediately on arrival."

The office of the British American Land Company is at 4, Barge-yard, Bucklersbury, London: they have also agents at the various outports.


E.D. (Tedd) Brien, Ottawa, 2004

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