This story of our ancestors and pioneers THE SCANES was written for the occasion of the Centennial Picnic held at Rondeau Provincial Park, Sunday August 13, 1967
When the Scanes chose to get together for their first gathering one hundred years ago at Rondeau, they came by oxteam and wagon. An old oaken bucket was in use at the time here on these grounds. There were no tables, benches, etc. The womenfolk spread their cloths on the ground, laid out their food on them and all sat down on the grass in a very small clearing to eat the food they had been preparing for days. The menfolk came in their white shirts, stiff collars, good suits and Sunday hats. The womenfolk dressed in high collars, long sleeved dresses sweeping the ground, and certainly they wore their Sunday hats.
It was a long treck for all who attended, leaving very early in the morning, and a must, to be home before sunset. Then came the horse and buggy days, the side seaters and democrats. And as always, two substantial meals to be spread out -- later on tables, with chicken pie and baked beans, bread and butter, with pie and tea for the noon meal. Roast chicken, bread and butter, and currant cake for the very early supper.
The Scane women were noted for their superb cooking down through the years both at threshings and at picnics, and also at the Methodist Church suppers where for years, "The Scane Table" was noted for their delectable cooking.
For years the Taylor Family from Chatham (Mrs. Taylor, the daughter of Ebenezaar Scane) came with watermelons and muskmelons for everyone, these were eaten during the time between dinner and supper (which was a very short time.) Then, there was the bunch of bananas they brought and with lots of help the bunch was hoisted up and hung on a tree limb low enough for all to reach. Some went in for a swim, most had a boat ride across the Eau and back. Sports came later, but there seemed to be little time between eating, washing dishes and preparing the supper -- and anyway the older ones were too uncomfortable from over-eating, so it was the children who ran the races, etc. if there was time.
Many, many stories could be told of the Scane families, but some of you are already blurry eyed so I will cover up my typewriter trusting that some of you will enjoy at least parts of this story.
And may I suggest that each family continue on with their own family history before it is too late.
IRENE AND GEORGE
(Mr. and Mrs. George Brien)
Mrs. Fred Brien Mrs. Carrie Mae (Scane) McMillan
To understand the conditions our Pioneer Ancestors confronted it is needful to go yet further back to the more remote era when the powerful Neutrals (Indian Tribe) occupied the fertile lands of what later became the Southwestern Peninsula. This tribe was destroyed about 1651. It is hard to understand that the fertile land of which they were dispossessed, and which the conquering Iroquois never occupied, did not attract white pioneers till after the fall of Quebec in 1759. It was a rich land. In the era following the last age, retreating glaciers had left moraines of stones and gravel, the hard backbone of the Southwestern peninsula. Of these the Ridge immediately north of Lake Erie was the most conspicuous. A rich land, empty of people, it thus remained through more than a century after 1651, waiting for those who in God's good time would seek homes here. The American Revolution changed the entire picture. The land nobody wanted became instantly a tremendous asset to the British government confronted with the problem of finding new homes for the Loyalists, most of whom had sacrificed their all for the Motherland.
Young Thomas Talbot (whose birthplace was Castle Malahide in Ireland) made his first journey to Detroit as aide to Simcoe in 1798; he was impressed with the possibilities of this western land and like Simcoe, he resented the thought of the enterprising and thrifty sons of England, Ireland and Scotland settling under the alien flag of the United States. To divert this tide of emigration toward Canada was probably as much his purpose as to win a great landed estate for himself. Talbot was a relatively free agent, yet it was ten years before his ideas crystallized into action. On May 21, 1803, he established himself at Castle Malahide, in Dunwich Township, and began his long career as a colonizer. He dispatched agents to New York and adjacent states to meet the newcomers and tell them of the favorable climate and the soil of the Lake Erie district. More, he empowered them to offer each settler a free grant of 50 acres, and a promise of help in getting himself established with the right to purchase 150 acres additional at a nominal price. Talbot's agents were cautioned to make a wise selection of the men to whom grants were offered.
To sell land, Talbot realized he must have surveys and means of communication. He regarded road building as vital, and to that task he set himself, even before he was fully established on his own 5,000 acres in Elgin County. The Talbot Road (now Highway #3) lined with 200 acre lots, was blazed east and west, 400 rods from Lake Erie shore, and approximately parallel to it. The narrow frontage of 80 rods gave promise that settlers would be close neighbours. Construction of Talbot Street, named in honor of the great Empire builder, was a condition of his agreement with the Government. As early as 1812 the survey of the road and its double line of 200 acre lots was carried as far west as Lot 91.
The war of 1812 interrupted the survey. A draft agreement for the construction of the road, completed by a Howard Township pioneer named Green required him to "Make or cause to be made a road one rod wide, all trees of one foot and under to be cut even with the surface, and all fallen trees removed, all bridges to be made with logs or facings fifteen feet wide, with a ditch at each end and covered with earth, to commence at the east line of the Township of Orford and thence to the Communications Road, the whole of said road, bridges and causeways to be done, completed and finished by first of December, 1816.
Colonel Talbot was a unique character -- by birth a gentleman, in whom queer business habits, arrogance and kindliness were oddly mingled. His mode of recording and transferring the unpatented claims of his settlers was the height of simplicity. A rubber plug swept across the map hanging in his office sufficed to evict one settler, a few strokes of a pencil put another in possession. A poor and honest immigrant not only got a good location but at times material assistance to clear it. Talbot did not lack for vanity. In his early years it was his ambition to build up at Port Talbot an estate worthy of a scion of his historic house. His settlers were "my people" and in truth they were. He is reputed to have spent $80,000 of his own means in assisting them, he married them, christened their babies, and even undertook their spiritual guidance by holding services, ensuring their attendance by his practice of passing the whiskey bottle after the benediction. He was reputed honest in his dealings and unselfish. Talbot himself shouldered the axe and shared the toils of the pioneer's life, diligently clearing his own estate and by 1820 he had completed the location duties on the lands first allotted to him. Not until 1822, however, was the territory opened for settlement. In 1823 Alex Marsh erected a log house for his Father on Lot 9, Concession 10. Daddy Marsh (William) arrived the following year from England. Shortly after his coming, James Watson settled on the lot opposite him. In no great time, Edmund Mitton and Ebenezaar Colby took up adjacent Lots 10 in Concessions 9 and 10. These four lots later became the site of Ridgetown.
In the year 1824 there came from England Thomas Scane, the elder, accompanied by his two well-grown sons Thomas Jr. and John. The father Thomas was the first member of the Scane family concerning whom any data is obtainable, but the following was gathered information stating the Scane Family were of old English stock and well to do -- highly respected citizens, so I am told. They followed the trade of whale fishing in the Old Country owning their own sailing vessels and had followed their trade for over a century. Several of the older members bearing the Scane name were lost as sea while working at their profession.
They came by way of New York thence North and West alone the line of travel to Buffalo, then to the home of Colonel Talbot on Lake Erie. The Colonel retained all these early settlers, among them the Scanes, in his employ for a time to enable them to become accustomed to the new life, then sent them to pick out farms for themselves. Thomas Jr. and John were young men 22 to 26 years of age. Thomas Scane, the father, was 57, born in l765. These men before approaching Colonel Talbot had made extensive enquiries as to the best location available and decided on the new survey in the Township of Howard. So when they approached the Colonel they were able to satisfy him that they were desirable settlers. He gave them permission to locate in Howard if they found the place to their liking.
These men made their way toward the West along the Talbot Road, which at the time was more a trail than a road. In Aldborough they were joined by one Edmund Mitton who wanted to change to a new location. In time they came to the cabin of John Shippey who was living on the Talbot Road about two miles East from what is now the Village of Morpeth. Shippey was a trapper and in pursuit of his calling became familiar with the interior of the Township so they hired him to guide them to a suitable area and it was he who brought them to the site of Ridgetown. This area was heavily timbered with hardwood; the size of the trees indicated fertile land, drainage was good, in fact he had brought them to the crest of the watershed from which water flowed North to the Thames and South to Lake Erie. They were on what has since been called the Ridge. The original survey of the Ridge was called the Middle Road, but subsequently called the 9th Concession. Mitton and Watson had taken Lots 10 and 9 North on the Middle Road, while the Scanes took Lots about a mile further West, their holdings eventually amounted to 5 or 600 acres. A great deal could be written about the hardships suffered by these men, including the difficult journey to get to Canada. Once located the land had to be cleared of the forest before anything could we planted. They were beset by pests of all kinds and by fever and ague. But all settlers being alike, they banded together to help each other and they came through slowly at first, but always gaining ground.
The voyage took fourteen weeks and one of the crockery water bottles brought on that voyage from England (the settlers had to bring drinking water with them in such containers), as well as one of the compasses used to direct the sailing vessel on the historic trip, is in the possession of the family of the late Chas. W. Scane. Another of their treasures is an old family Bible containing two volumes with the Old Testament and the New Testament under separate covers. Both are leather bound.
The Scanes remained permanently. They took up lots to the west of Ridgetown. These farms were centred about one mile out and the side road is known as the Scane Side Road. The land was high and dry, the soil proved singularly fertile, and the area was easily accessible from Talbot Street and Lake Erie. The original small clearings were rapidly extended. It seemed as though the high, clear air of the Ridge inspired its occupants with energy and enterprise to an unusual degree.
Yet in the early days the energy and enterprise of the pioneers were concentrated on clearing and farming the land. No attempt seems to have been made to establish a village. The pioneers found themselves walled in by forest with oak, walnut, beech, hickory and maple predominating. Berry bushes and crab apple and wild cherry trees were scattered through the woods. They built log houses. Thomas, the father, and his wife located on the South side of the Scane Sideroad just above the creek and were buried on the same site directly across from the Scane Cemetery about the year 1845. Several years later his son John gave the land for the present Scane Cemetery and the remains of the father Thomas and those of his wife were removed to the Cemetery by Mr. Hartwick, husband of Betsey (daughter of Thomas Sr.)
The Scane Cemetery is located on the East side of the Scane Sideroad, a few rods South of the Ridge Road. All Scanes and their relatives could have been buried here if they wished. At one time there were 139 marked graves, as well as a large number of unmarked ones. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Scane would be the first graves. One year after John gave this land the Scane's Cemetery was reverently and solemnly dedicated as God's Acre by a travelling minister. His name was Reverend Mugridge. A list of names on the tombstones still standing as of this year 1967 will be found near the close of this history. Mr. Mathew Wilson of Chatham some years ago, on a history visit to this Cemetery, said it was the oldest cemetery in Kent County, or in this part of the country. He found markers to prove his statement. Some years later the old rail fence that originally surrounded the Cemetery was replaced by a black iron fence -- this was made possible by donations from each of the Scane families. The last burial in the old Cemetery was the infant daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Howard Pyne about 1912, at the Westerly Corner. Benjamin J. Smith had charge of this burial. (J. C. Locke & Co. Undertakers, Ridgetown; Ontario.)
To go back to the time the Scanes settled on the Ridge . . . . . The Indians with whom these settlers came into contact in 1824 were not the Indians who made the numerous arrowheads, stone axes and similar stoneage tools which have been plowed up all over the site of Ridgetown and surrounding communities. This earlier race of Indians were called the Neutrals. They cleared by burning an acre or two on a sandy ridge, grew squash and corn; when the land became unproductive they cleared another patch and abandoned the first. A clearing of this kind was found on the front end of the Mitton farm (Ridge Road East, or Ward 4) and was called the Indian Ridge (later called the Middle Ridge). At the time of settlement this strip of land had no big trees on it, but small growth, mostly thorn and wild crab apple. The Neutral tribe of Indians were exterminated by the Iroquois in 1650; in the year 1790 a surveyor by the name of McNiff found remains of bark houses and evidence that a dense population had at one time lived along the North shore of Lake Erie, no doubt Iroquois Indians.
Pioneering in Kent was a tale of hardships difficult for later generations to picture. The pioneer home was a rude log house plastered together with mud, roofed with clapboard split from pine and walnut logs and heated by a huge fireplace. His tools were an axe, a large hoe, an auger, a sickle, a saw, a spade, a wooden plow, plow shares, ox yoke and chain. The housewife worked with a skillet, a pot, a spinning wheel, a set of cards for wool, a log cradle, and a trough for bread (tray for baking bread). Corn and vegetables were grown in the stump pitted clearing. Thomas Scane and his two sons Thomas and John cleared their land, cutting the grain with a hand sickle, threshing it with flails and stomping it out with oxen. They were possessed with a vigorous constitution and a large capacity for work. Thomas, the father, managed to endure these hardships and many more, and with the aid of his two sons to transform the land into as desirable farming property as any in the vicinity.
Wolves were a terror in the land, as were bear, and wild pigs. Thomas Scane had the misfortune to have a cow and her calf killed by one of these roaming bears. At certain seasons no woman's life was safe on the trail after nightfall. Even in daylight sheep were in constant danger and after dark all young stock had to be penned. So destructive were wolves that quite early a bounty was paid "a wolfe scalp warrant" to the value of $6 being issued for each wolf scalp being taken.
The settlers' first task was to provide shelter. His weapon the axe. The surrounding forest offered abundant building material -- he had only to fell the trees of the proper dimensions and cut them into logs of suitable length. On the front thicker logs were used so that by the time the last tier was placed there was sufficient slope from front to back to provide fall for a roof. Poles were laid crosswise and covered with bark opened out and piled two tiers deep. Additional poles superimposed on this bark and tied to those underneath with basswood thongs ensured without nail or bolt a roof strong enough to defy any gale, and tight enough to keep out rain or snow.
Basswood logs, split as evenly as possible, were used for floor and door. The cracks between the logs were chinked with splinters of wood, then plastered with mortar contrived of clay and ashes, the later a fair substitute for lime. This served for the first year and often more. A house large enough to meet the requirements of his settlement duties came later. In this later, the whole settlement co-operated in building the house.
And like the house, the inside furnishings were almost all homemade products. The bed was a one leg structure built into the corner of the house, the sturdy walls doing duty for the other three legs. The springs were poles or basswood plank. The mattress was of hemlock boughs, later corn husks or rye or wheat straw, and still later were wild fowl feathers sewn in a tick. An indispensable feature of the pioneer dwelling was the open fireplace. An opening was cut in the wall at the far end of the cabin, and here was erected a crude boxlike structure of stone with an open front. The wide fireplace was large enough to take a backlog four feet long and a foot through. Every night in cold weather a backlog would be "walked in" and placed in the wide chimney; this, with a forelog and some split wood ensured a rousing fire through the night. The men employed their evenings making axe handles to replace those frequently broken in felling trees. Sometimes they would mend the childrens' shoes or make hickory brooms for the housewife. She, in turn, spent her evenings spinning, knitting, or in many duties falling to her lot.
As a distributor of heat in very cold weather the fireplace was not too efficient. The complaint was common that you were seared on one side and frozen on the other, still by frequent turning, one did fairly well. Clothing was homemade and usually woolen homespun. Many Old Country immigrants brought with them quantities of linen, but sooner or later the majority were clothed with their own products. As soon as the settler's clearing was large enough a few sheep would be kept to provide clothing for the family. The womenfolk vied with one another in designs to suit their fancy, but the mere men had to be content with coarser yarn to ensure a heavier cloth which would stand rough usage. The clothing worn was full cloth or flannel, both made from wool. The sheep were driven to John Mitton's washing pens where they were washed and driven home (the Mitton farm was what is now Ward 1,Ridgetown), sheared, the wool was carded and spun into yarn. The settler then took it to Moody's flour and woollen mill built in 1855 at the corner of York and Water Streets in Ridgetown, where it was woven into cloth and then taken home to be made into clothes for the family. The process of making fulling cloth for winter use was to place the cloth as it came from the weaver in a tub of lukewarm water, with plenty of soap, where it was trampled, hour after hour, by barefoot boys and girls. By this means the cloth shrunk and was made much thicker.
In winter cattle browsed -- that is, trees (principally elm and soft maple) were chopped down and limbs cut off to be within reach of cattle. They thrived on this food by eating the small branches and buds, they were in first class condition in the Spring.
Most settlers raised hogs. The nuts in the woods fattened them. It made rather oily pork but by depriving the hogs of nuts for four or five weeks and feeding corn the meat was good.
Coon oil was chiefly used with a piece of rag in a saucer for lighting and had the advantage that it could be moved to any part of the room. Tallow candles came later. A block of wood with a hole in the centre served as a candle stick. Eventually moulded candles came into general use. Metal moulds capable of making up to eight candles at a time became standard equipment in the pioneer home. They looked better than the tallow dip, but gave no better light. Inner bark of the birch tree divided until thin and pliable could be written on with ink. Ink was sometimes made by dissolving gunpowder in water, but mostly used was the ink made by boiling soft maple bark and adding copperas and a little sugar. Such ink, quite black, cost about a cent a gallon and was for many years used in schools. Quill pens could be made by anyone with a sharp knife, or whittled from a hickory stick.
Tea, sugar and meat were luxuries, tea not being used except on Sundays. Game was plentiful if the settler could kill. Live coals were drawn out from the fireplace and a pan with the dough on it was set on the coals to cook the bread.
William Marsh, familiarly known as "Daddy Marsh", the first settler coming out (but the same year as the Scanes) set up the only hand mill for grinding in the settlement. The mill was built on Daddy's land in the section of Ridgetown known as Ward 2. The mill consisted of two stones which were turned by hand. The corn and wheat was poured in the upper stone and as the upper stone was turned, the corn was ground into meal and sifted out the sides.
These stones were used by the Scane settlers and when the old house (on what is now the Hewak farm) was moved in 1911, out from under came Daddy Marsh's mill.
Long trips to the store were made for the simplest commodities, one day a roll of butter to buy a pound of salt, or 2 or three eggs for a darning needle. A bushel of salt cost eighteen of wheat, a yard of cotton - one bushel, a pound of tea $2.00 and sharpening plowirons - 62½ cents.
Travel was mostly on foot. The new settler seldom possessed a horse and few roads were usable for wagons. As late as 1842 there where only 25 wagons in Kent and Lampton. For farming and logging oxen were generally employed. The majority of settlers owned an ox team and cleared and worked their farm with them. Even after many years when the horse was used for farm work, in many ways Buck and Bright held a large place on the farm.
A blacksmith shop owned by Jas. S. Mitton (known as Blacksmith Jim) and located on the site now covered by the three brick blocks east of the former W.H. Goodhue Hardware Store on the south side of Main Street, was where the oxen were shod. The oxen were thrown and strapped so as to have no movement. Two shoes were put on each foot and 16 shoes on each pair of oxen. Blacksmith Jim settled here prior to 1850. He was a most necessary and useful member of the community. He got his iron in flat slabs and from these he cut sections with cold chisels, to make up into shoes, bolts, chisels, clevises, chains, nails and all the various articles necessary for the settlers use. Old shoes were saved and were welded into rods to be used again for new shoes. Iron was precious in the early days and there was none of it wasted.
The blacksmith shop was on the lot east of the tavern where most of the breaches of the peace occurred. So Blacksmith Jim was created a guardian of the peace with the title of constable. He didn't wear any uniform or carry a baton, but he wore a leather apron and had a hard pair of fists and strong muscles. His method of stopping a fight was not to arrest any one, for there was no lock-up, but to knock them out with his fists. When the offender came to he had usually forgotten what the row was about and was glad to go home sober.
The rifle was the gun most used in early days. The game was large and there was little use for the shotgun. The ability to use the rifle was passed from the older generation to the younger. The favorite rifle for target shooting was the muzzle loader. Among the good rifle shots we find the names of Charles W. and Harry Scane (sons of Jonh 2nd). When the breachloading shotgun came on the market the rifles were discarded in favor of the shotgun for target shooting. A gun club was organized in 1880 to shoot glass balls. This target gave place to the tin pigeon, a contrivance something like a saucer which, when hit with the shot, caused a tongue to drop indicating a hit. This was in turn abandoned for the clay bird trap. The following were among those who could break 80 percent of the targets or better - Harry Scane, Chas. W. Scane, William Thorold, James Scane, George Scane.
The following items are worthy of note
Until the fairgrounds were purchased in 1882 providing a race track, all horse races were held on Main Street West. The 24th of May always called for a calithumpian parade and a horse race for runners as well as other amusements. The horses were started in front of Josie Scane's farm (now owned by Frank Korycan) and finished at the Church of Christ, Ridgetown, three-quarters of a mile straight away. Both sides of the village street were lined with wheels of fortune, lemonade stalls, candy and gewgaws. All horses were locally owned. Both horses and owners were well known to the crowd and bets were in order. $5.00 would be a big bet at that time and equal to the prize for the successful horse and rider.
A Union Sunday School at Ridgetown started on Christmas Day in the second school house, a frame building on Lot 9, Concession 9, where Silcox Hardware is now located. Records give the name of John Scane 1st as an Assistant in the Sunday School work (1851).
The Scane and Brien families were named in the Memories of Ridgetown as being, among others, men who took an active interest in the growth and advancement of Ridgetown.
James Scane, son of John Scane and Elizabeth Mitton, was the first white child born on the Ridge Road (1826). He was the uncle of James Manley Scane and great uncle of George S. Brien.
Ebenezaar Scane, son of John 1st, was a lawyer in Chatham. He was the first student to attend College from the Scane District.
In 1883 Mr. Joseph Scane replaced his first residence by a handsome brick house which still stands on the farm (now occupied by Mr. Frank Korycan).
Great Uncle James Scane (son of John Scane 1st) lived in the house now occupied by Lloyd S. Brien and family. He raised Standard bred horses (race horses) and sold them. One sale was to England where it won the King's plate. The horse's name was Ridgewood.
One of his mares died leaving a three week old colt which he gave to James Manley Scane who raised in on the bottle, then trained and raced it at Ridgetown Fair and surrounding places, Chatham, etc. It won many prizes. At one time James Manley was offered $600 for him, but wanted $1,000. Later "Jimie Scane" (the name of the racer) came down with the influenza which ended his racing career, but he was used as an ordinary driver. He then became "King" and many a time George Brien drove him attached to James Manley's high class buggy.
The Scanes held church, Sunday School and Prayer Meetings in their log house. This log house stood where Lloyd Brien's house stands now. The present house was erected by Mr. John Scane 1st also. The log house did not only serve as a home for the Scane family and a church meeting place, but also a stopping place for the new settlers til they could build a log house for themselves. On Sundays benches were drawn in to serve as pews and services were held there. In a few years under Mr. John Scane's direction or supervision a log church was erected. Here the people worshipped until the congregation became too large and more funds were raised and a wooden church was built on Jane Street. This church was torn down only a few years ago by Mr. Charles Hiles who owned and used it as a barn or garage. It stood directly across the road from the old Ridgetown Public School. You could enter it from Jane or Ebenezer Streets as it stood half way between the two streets. All these churches were bettered by Mr. Scane's untiring efforts. He was a member of every board and Superintendent of the Sunday School of each church. He also gave the first Bible to each church. The Gibson brothers are in possession of the first bible. It was discarded at the opening of the new church and Mrs. Gibson reserved it as a keepsake and at her death left it to her sons. Mr. Scane had a great sense of humour. His presence at public gatherings was always welcomed by repeated applause. His advice was often sought by professional men and the old settlers. His word was as good as his bond, safe and sound.
He always believed in tything and thought money for church work should be a free will offering and freely given, and always considered people that did not give were not able. He was always very careful not to misjudge his trusty friends.
Shortly after the wooden church on Jane Street was erected they were to introduce a new minister. That evening Mr. Scane and his family arrived at the church. Mr. Scane carrying his usual large basket of provisions for a social evening. He was stopped in entering and informed that they were charging 25 cents tonight as they had adopted a new plan for raising money. Mr. Scane ignored the idea and did not stay, returning home with his esteemed wife and family. He said he did not call that free will giving. He, being a tyther himself, was always thoughtful of others, maybe some would not have the 25 cents and what would they do? It did not seem just to Mr. Scane. His one aim was to keep the members in the church and to get new ones of their faith. He thought it could not be done this way as times were hard for some. No one seems to know how this was settled but the Scane family continued to worship in that church.
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The following is a copy of one of the marriage certificates which in slang was called by the early settlers a "splice":
Upper Canada, Western District,
Whereas Thomas Scane of the Township of Howard and Charlotte Reader of the same place were desirous of intermarrying with each other and there being no parson or Minister of the Church of England living within Eighteen miles of them, or either of them, they have applied to me for that purpose. Now these are to certify that in the persuance of the power granted by an Act of the Legislature of this province, passed in the thirty third year of his Majesty's Reign, I, Isaac Bell, Esquire, one of his majesty's Justices of the peace, having caused the previous notice by Statute required to be given, have this day married the said Thomas Scane and Charlotte Reader together and they have become legally contracted to each other in marriage.
So Tom and Lottie were legally spliced together in the reign of George the Fourth and Tom got not only Lottie, but all her goods and chattels (if any).
P.S. An Act passed validating all the regular marriages and power was then invested in Justices of the Peace to perform the marriage ceremony when there was no Anglican Minister within eighteen miles.
Last revised 2003/03/28